Skip to main content
Living Sky School Division No. 202
Growth Without Limits, Learning For All
School Division No. 202
  • Disfluency refers to breaks in the continuity of spoken language.
  • Can be used to refer to normal disfluencies and stuttering disfluencies. The categories of normal disfluencies (ND) and stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) are defined below:
    1. ND
      • Whole Word Repetition (1 unit) (eg., cat-cat)
      • Multi-syllabic Whole Word Repetitions (eg., into-into)
      • Phrase Repetitions (eg., go into the – go into the)
      • Revisions (eg., I got – I have)
      • Interjections (eg., I um have a house)
    2. SLD
      • Inaudible Sound Prolongations/Blocks (eg., silence while holding an articulatory posture)
      • Audible Sound Prolongations (eg., Mmmmmmmaybe we)
      • Sound/Syllable Repetitions (eg., H-h-house and/or ba-ba-baby)
      • Whole Word Repetitions (eg., In-in-in)
      • Broken Words (eg., I was g(pause)oing)
      • Clusters (disfluencies consisting of two or more types of SLDs) (eg., In-in-in the u-u-um in the house)

What Do you Know about Stuttering? A Parent’s and Teacher’s Guide (Super Duper Handy Handouts)

Causes and Treatment of Stuttering in Young Children (Super Duper Handy Handouts)

Secondary Behaviors of Stuttering (Super Duper Handy Handouts)

Canadian Stuttering Association (CSA)​